CHICKEN ANAEMIA VIRUS IMPAIRS NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN HD11 CHICKEN MACROPHAGES

Katja Ester, William Lauman Ragland

Abstract


Immunosuppressive viruses cause substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) causes severe disease in young chickens, whereas subclinical infection in older birds causes immunosuppression. In this study, we addressed the ability of CAV to interfere with production of antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages. NO production in chicken macrophage cell line HD11 was induced using both Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and an immune modulator, interferon-γ. In addition, we treated macrophages with CAV propagated in chicken lymphoblastoid cells. The levels of NO were measured by the Griess reaction. Addition of CAV decreased both the interferon-γ and the lipopolysaccharide associated induction of NO. Observed effect was not caused by CAV-related cytotoxicity, as no decrease in number of viable cells was observed. Although CAV could not completely abrogate NO production, attenuation of NO induction was clearly present. We have previously shown that CAV interferes with the expression of interferons in chickens during subclinical infection. Since the signalling pathways of expression of interferons and type 2 nitric oxide synthase, enzyme involved in NO formation, overlap, we conclude that measured decrease in NO levels is a consequence of CAV interference with interferon and NO synthase signalling. Regardless of the fact whether the attenuation of NO serves as a viral primary defence, or is only a secondary effect, it could impair the immune response to other pathogens and contribute to the global immunosuppression in chicken houses.

Key words: chicken; immunosuppression; chicken anaemia virus (CAV); macrophage; nitric oxide (NO)

 

VIRUS PIÅ ÄŒANÄŒJE ANEMIJE VPLIVA NA PROIZVODNJO DUÅ IKOVIH OKSIDOV V MAKROFAGIH PIÅ ÄŒANEV HD11

Povzetek: Imunosupresivni virusi povzroÄajo velike gospodarske izgube v perutninski industriji. Virus piÅ¡ÄanÄje anemije (CAV) pri mladih piÅ¡Äancih povzroÄa hudo bolezen, medtem ko subkliniÄna okužba pri starejÅ¡ih pticah povzroÄa oslabljen imunski odziv. V tej raziskavi je bil spremljan vpliv CAV na proizvodnjo duÅ¡ikovih oksidov (NO) v makrofagih. Proizvodnja NO v piÅ¡ÄanÄjih makrofagih v celiÄni liniji HD11 je bila sprožena z uporabo agonista Toll-u podobnega receptorja 4, bakterijskega lipopolisaharida in imunskega modulatorja interferona-γ, makrofagi pa so bili okuženi s CAV, razmnoženim v piÅ¡ÄanÄjih limfoblastoidnih celicah. Ravni NO so izmerili po Griessovi reakciji. Prisotnost CAV je zmanjÅ¡ala proizvodnjo NO, spodbujeno tako z interferonom-γ, kot z lipopolisaharidom. Opaženega uÄinka ni povzroÄila citotoksiÄnost, povezana s CAV, saj ni bilo opaziti zmanjÅ¡anja Å¡tevila živih celic. ÄŒeprav CAV ni popolnoma zavrla nastajanja NO, je bilo oÄitno prisotno zmanjÅ¡anje nastajanja NO. Pred tem so pokazali, da CAV moti izražanje interferonov pri piÅ¡Äancih med subkliniÄno okužbo. Ker se poti znotrajceliÄnega prenosa urejanja izražanja interferonov in sintaze duÅ¡ikovih oksidov tipa 2, encima, ki sodeluje pri tvorbi NO, prekrivajo, predvidevamo, da je izmerjeno znižanje ravni NO posledica motenj CAV pri znotrajceliÄnem prenosu sporoÄila interferona do sintaze duÅ¡ikovih oksidov. Ne glede na to, ali zaviranje nastajanja NO služi kot primarna virusna obramba ali je le sekundarni uÄinek, lahko poslabÅ¡a imunski odziv na druge patogene in prispeva k sploÅ¡nemu zmanjÅ¡anju imunskega odziva v kurnikih ali na kokoÅ¡jih farmah.

KljuÄne besede: piÅ¡Äanci; zmanjÅ¡anje imunskega odziva; virus piÅ¡ÄanÄje anemije (CAV); makrofagi; duÅ¡ikov oksid (NO)


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1012-2020

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